Before written history, the northernmost 1.200 km (750 miles) of the Nile Valley was devided into more than fourty small areas ruled by local tribes which all had their own gods, chiefs and capitals. Their traditions and customs varied a lot but there was one thing they had in common - the language. A stadard was the identifiaction mark and later they became provinces in the united country and through over 3.000 years of Egyptian history they kept their identity intact. The tribe chiefs were with time replaced by governors working for the central power and when they were not the country was weakened. Today the capitals are known by both domestic and Greek names.
The large Faiyum basin was not included in the original setup and has been marked below as province "0" of Upper Egypt.


The nomes of
Lower Egypt
1
The White Fortress


Capital: Mennefer
Greek: Memphis, today: Mit Rahina
Local god: Ptah
2
The thigh of a cow


Capital: Khem
Greek: Letopolis, today: Ausim.
Local god: Horus the Elder
3
The West


Capital: Imu
Greek: Naukratis?, today: Kom el Hisn.
Local goddess: Hathor
4
The Southern Shield


Capital: Djeka
Greek: --, today: --.
Local god: Horus the Elder
5
The Northern Shield


Capital: Sais
Greek: Sais, today: Sa el Hagar.
Local gods: Uadjet, Neit
6
The Horizon Bull


Capital: Khasuut
Greek: Xois, today: Sakha.
Local god: Amon-Re
7
West harpoon


Capital: ---
Greek: Hermopolis , today: Demanhur
Local god: Atum
8
East harpoon


Capital: Tjeku (Per-Tem)
Greek: Pithom, today: el Maskhuta
Local god: Nefertem
9
Anedjti


Capital: Per Usiri
Greek: Busiris, today: Sa el Hagar.
Local gods: Ram Andjty, Osiris
10
The Black Bull


Capital: Hut-heryib
Greek: Athribis, today: --
Local gods: Black Bull Kemour,
(Horus-)Khentykhety crocodile
11
The Heseb Bull


Capital: Taremu
Greek: Leontopolis, today: Tell el Muqdam.
Local gods: Shu, Maahes, Isis, Sebek
12
The Cow and the Calf


Capital: Tjebnutjer
Greek: Sebennytos, today: Samanud
Local gods: calf Samanod, Anhur
13
The Undamaged Scepter ?


Capital: Iunu
Greek: Heliopolis, today: Heliopolis.
Local gods: Re, Mnevis bull
14
The Older East Nome


Capital: Senu
Greek: Sile, Latin: Tjaru, today: Qantara?
Local god: Horus
15
The Ibis Stork


Capital: BŠkh
Greek: Hermopolis, today: Al Baqlia.
Local god: Thoth
16
The Jumping Fish


Capital: - Per-banebdjedet
Greek: Mendes, today: Tmai el Amdid.
Local god: Osiris
17
The Throne


Capital: Pahkenen-Amon
Greek: Diospolis, today: --.
Local god: Amon-Re
18
The Upper Royal Child


Capital: Per-bastet
Greek: Bubastis, today: Tall Bastah.
Local god: Bast
19
The Lower Royal Child


Capital: Imet, Hawaret,
Greek: Tanis, today: Tel el Dab'a.
Local god: Khensit cobra Uadjet
20
The East


Capital: Quesem, Per-Sopdu
Greek: Soped, today: Saft al Hinna.
Local gods: Sopdet, Sopdu


The nomes of
Upper Egypt


Numbers and capitals: 0 Shedet, Krokodilpolis.
1 Elefantine, Aswan, 2 Edfu, 3 Nekheb, Latopolis,
4 Thebes, 5 Koptos, 6 Dendera, 7 Hiw, 8 Thinis, Abydos,
9 Ipu Akhmin, 10 Dkew-qa, 11 Shas-hotep, 12 Per Nemty,
13 Sauty, 14 Qis, 15 Khmunu, 16 Hebenu Kom el-Ahmar,
17 Hardai, 18 Teudjaj, 19 Per-medjed, 20 Henen-nesut,
Herakleopolis, 21 Smed-Hor, 22 Athfi, Aphroditopolis.  

0
The Faiyum

Capital: Shedet
Greek: Krokodilpolis, today: Medinet el Faiyum
Local god: Sobek
1
The Land of the Arch


Capital: Abu
Greek: Elefantine, today: Aswan
Local god: Khnum
2
The Throne of Horus


Capital: Utes-Hor
Greek: Apollinopolis, today: Edfu.
Local god: Horus
3
The Rural


Capital: Nekheb
Greek: Eileithyiaspolis, today: Elkab.
Local god: Nekhbet
4
The Sceptre


Capital: Waset
Greek: Thebe, today: Luxor.
Local gods: Amon, Mentu, Tauret, Khons
5
The Two Falcons


Capital: Kebti
Greek: Koptos, today: Quft.
Local god: Min
6
The Crocodile


Capital: Iunet
Greek: Tentyris, today: Dendera.
Local god: Hathor
7
The Sistrum


Capital: Hut-Sekhem
Greek: Diospolis Parva, today: Hiw.
Local god: Hathor
8
The Great Land


Capital: Abedju
Greek: Osiris, today: Abydos.
Local god: Anhur
9
Minu


Capital: Ipu
Greek: Khemmis Panopolis, today: Akhmim.
Local god: Min
10
The Cobra


Capital: Djew-qa
Greek: Antaeopolis, today: Qaw el-Kebir.
Local god: Hathor
11
The Set Animal


Capital: Shas-hotep
Greek: Hypselis, today: Shuth.
Local god: Khnum
12
The Viper Mountain


Capital: Per Nemty
Greek: Hierakon, today: el Atawia.
Local god: Nemty
13
Upper Pomegranate Tree


Capital: Sauty
Greek: Lykopolis, today: Asyut.
Local god: Upuaut
14
The Older East Nome


Capital: Qis
Gr/Ro: Cusae, today: el-Qusiya.
Local god: Hathor
15
The Hare


Capital: Khemenu
Greek: Hermopolis, today: Al Ashmunein.
Local god: Thoth
16
The Oryx


Capital: Hebenu
Greek: --, today: Kom el-Ahmar.
Local gods: Horus, Osiris
17
The Black Jackal


Capital: Kasa
Greek: Kynopolis, today: al-Kesh
Local god: Anubis
18
The Lifting Falcon


Capital: Teudjai
Greek: Ankyrononpolis, today: el-Hiba.
Local god: Sekhmet
19
The Pure Sceptres


Capital: Per-medjed
Greek: Oxyrhynchus, today: el-Bahnasa.
Local god: Set
20
The Upper Laurel


Capital: Henen-nesut
Greek: Herakleopolis, today: Ahnas.
Local god: Herishef
21
The Lower Laurel


Capital: Smed-Hor
Greek: --, today: Kafr Ammar
Local god: Khnum
22
The Knife


Capital: Dep-Ehet
Greek: Aphroditopolis, today: Atfih.
Local god: Hathor